Isaac Newton put forward a theory in 1687. Newton says; Every mass in the universe has a gravity force exerted on another. While formulating this law; He revealed that the mutual magnitudes of opposing forces are equal and these forces are directly proportional to the masses of the bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The expressed equation is called the Law of Gravitation in today's physics. Having succeeded in laying the foundations of modern physics while doing Aristotle's readings, Newton not only made a scientific breakthrough, but also proved that we should not be limited to the patterns of those fields in order to have ideas in various fields.
John Stuart Mill put forward a theory in 1859. Mill says; Each individual in the society has a pressure exerted on the other, the line on which this pressure is legitimate is the individual's "personal field". While formulating his theory, he made a distinction between "areas of concern to the person" and "areas of concern to society". It has revealed the boundaries of these fields within the framework of two opposite poles, the interventions that society and the individual can apply to each other. He argued that the progress of societies would be possible only by unquestionably liberating the aforementioned "areas of concern to the person". (Mill, 2008) This theory constitutes the basis of Human Rights in today's dominant law. While reading about Bentham's social order that devaluates the individual in the face of society with a cold logic, Mill realized that the main building block of society is the individual, and argued that Bentham's utilitarian policy can yield results by preserving the freedom areas of "individuals". (Sandel, 2019)
When we evaluate today's society; We will examine Newton from the perspective of a sociological theorist and Mill from the perspective of a scientist. We will work on how Newton would explain the social increase in mass and the distance between societies, and how Mill would evaluate the negative acceleration of opposing forces despite this attraction.
When we look at the last fifty years, there has been an unprecedented population explosion in almost every region of the world. This explosion brought economic acceleration and intensive industrialization with it. "Sociologist Newton" says; As the mass of societies (in population and economic dimensions) increases, the gravitational force between them increases. Because the needs of societies whose population increases and grows economically increase accordingly. One of the inevitable consequences of the growth in demand is the increase in the amount of imports. This creates a gravitation that is impossible to resist. Development of communication and transportation facilities, one of the results of technological progress in the last century; It has made all societies neighbors to each other, turning the entire world into a "marketplace" accessible to every individual. When we place these data in the formula of the Law of Gravitation, we see: The "masses" that are in the numerator part and will positively affect the result with its increase are growing every year, whereas the "distance" in the denominator part, which has a negative effect, is decreasing day by day. If the opposing forces against this gravitational force do not increase at the same rate, an inevitable unification will occur on behalf of the communities of the World.
When we look at the last three hundred years, we see that the empires established in almost every region of the world have collapsed and replaced by nation-states. Nation-states, which have become the leading roles in the history scene since the French Revolution, have begun to succumb to time and leave their place to "supra-states" sovereignty. "Scientist Mill" says; Individuals are moving from “existing for the state” to “existing for the society” and getting out from there to “to exist to protect their own personal field”. Opposing forces that can negatively affect the gravity are external obstacles that can make it difficult for societies to get closer. The most important of these is the restrictions imposed by the states. States are losing power to established connections, and despite individuals the interstate borders are becoming meaningless. The political and economic foreign policies of the states lose their importance for the "individual" every year; Therefore, today's relations are established at the focus of interpersonal interests. The source of development is this change in consciousness. Explaining this process, “scientist Mill”, referring to Newton, proved that the opposite forces that can create obstacles against gravity also lose their power over time and leave their place to boundaries that do not have an equivalent in life.
These four thinkers express that: Economic needs and social permeability rising due to the intense population growth in the world increase the power of individualism; This situation pushes individuals and societies to accumulate values by specializing in a specific fields. Gaps arising in other fields in parallel with specialization push the individuals to establish a relationship with other fellows. As states are incapable of responding to growing lists of needs; People build their relationships in direction of “need-oriented” individual pursuits rather than in the social basis. The ongoing "social solidarity" is evolving towards "globalization", where individuals remove intermediaries and can establish their personal relations.
- Mill, J. S. (2008). Özgürlük Üzerine. Oda Yayınları.
- Sandel, M. J. (2019). Adalet: Yapılması Gereken Doğru Şey Nedir? FELİX KİTAP.