Tuesday, 22 December 2020 15:48

Prohibited Arms in Warfare - Geneva Protocol

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When the Armenian army started to be defeated at the front within the scope of the war launched on September 27, they attacked civilians with missiles and prohibited cluster munition in Ganja, the second largest city of Azerbaijan, in the morning of 04.10.2020. Later, it launched missiles with a range of 300 kilometers to Xızı and Absheron District of Azerbaijan. In fact, such weapons are prohibited by the Geneva Protocol.


The protocol on the prohibition of the use of choking, poisonous and similar gases and bacteriological tools in warfare (more commonly known as the Geneva Protocol) is the treaty prohibiting the use of biological and chemical weapons. The protocol was signed in Geneva on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928.[1]

The protocol prohibited the use of chemical and biological weapons, but did not say anything about their manufacture, storage, or transfer. Subsequent treaties (1972 Biological Weapons Convention and 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention) were created to cover these issues.

When many countries became by side of the Geneva Protocol as a prerequisite, they demanded that the non-use obligation be only among other countries that are parties to the convention, and that these obligations be eliminated if prohibited weapons are used against them.

Although the German Army (Bundeswehr) is generally thought to be the first to use gas in a war, the first to deploy such weapons is the French Armed Forces. In the first month of World War I, in August 1914, the French threw tear gas bombs (Xylyl bromide) on the Germans. Chemical weapons were first used by the German Empire when released chlorine gas in Ypres, Belgium in 1915. Treaty of Versailles [2]includes measures that prohibits Germany from manufacturing and importing chemical weapons. Similar treaties also banned the First Austrian Republic, Kingdom of Bulgaria and Kingdom of Hungary from chemical weapons.


Cluster munitions spread small bombs over a large area, posing an immediate and significant threat to civilians, indiscriminately. Most small bombs do not go off, but continue to cause death and injury long after they explode, effectively turning into mines, as Human Rights Watch calls it. Israel dropped more than one million cluster munitions during its 2006 invasion of Lebanon. These weapons are still a danger to people in Lebanon. American, British and Brazilian cluster munitions are used by Saudi Arabia on civilians in the civil war in Yemen and continue to kill and injure innocent people.[4]

The Cluster Munition Prohibition Convention was signed in 2008 completely prohibited the production, use and trade of cluster munition. More than 100 countries have signed the convention. The European Parliament strongly supported the agreement and made the fight against cluster munitions an indispensable part of the foreign aid programs of EU. However, Israel has not signed the convention and does not seem to act accordingly.

Israel wants to buy new heavy artillery and is interested in weapons produced by the German company KMW. However, according to a report published in Haaretz, Israel chose to buy heavy artillery from Elbit Systems, fearing that the German manufacturer would limit the use of cluster munitions. Israel reportedly continued to produce and store cluster munitions. Even though Israel did not sign the convention, Human Rights Watch reported that it could halt the production of Elbit Systems.

Israel's largest military company, Elbit Systems, produces heavy artillery that fires cluster munitions, white phosphorus bombs and weapons (signed by the EU) that are prohibited by many other international conventions. Elbit Systems also benefits from EU donations. At latest, Elbit Systems received nearly $ 6 million from the EU under the research fund named "Horizon 2020". Despite Elbit Systems is supplying cluster munitions to Israel has shown up, the EU continues to defend its funding. However, international legal experts criticized the Horizon 2020 process, stating that EU officials are responsible for abuses such as war crimes and torture that may result from ignoring EU regulations that block funds for certain individuals and groups.

In the battlefield, this and other inhuman attacks should be expected from this treacherous nation, which is not expected to fight manly and bravely, let alone complying with international legislation. In addition, Armenians are not the only state using this weapon, Israel is the most famous user in this regard. However, EU countries are the source of this crime. Although Human Rights Watch advocates that these weapons should not be used and should be banned, they cannot make anything. So, EU says, “Run with the Hares and Hunt with the Hounds”.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva_Protocol

[2]Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at the end of World War I. It was negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference, which began on 18 January 1919, the final text was declared to the Germans on 7 May 1919, adopted by the German Parliament on 23 June, and signed in the suburb of Versailles, Paris on 28 June.

Due to the harsh conditions it contained, the Treaty of Versailles caused a great reaction in Germany and was accepted as "betrayal". Many historians think that the economic and political instability experienced in Germany in the 1920s caused by government of Nazi Party, the World War II and ultimately Treaty of Versailles.

[3]  https://electronicintifada.net/blogs/ali-abunimah/eu-funds-firm-supplyin...

[4] http://utancgunlugu.com/insan-haklari-ihlalleri/3172-avrupa-birligi-israile-yasakli


Last modified on Thursday, 28 January 2021 14:08
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