- THE EFFECT OF MORAL VALUES IN PAST WARS
Strategic / Operative or tactical-level commands have to make a comparison between their own forces and the strength of their enemy in order to determine the type of combat they will use in war. The commanders reach a decision by including the morale power of the parties in their reasoning, after revealing their relative status in terms of the number of soldiers, organization, main combat vehicles and weapons and similar numerical and efficiency in terms of material.
In order for a commander to reach the attack decision, he must be at least one-fold superior to his enemy.
The Muslim Turkish armies could not outnumber their enemy numerically in any of the battles they won. Their spiritual values and their Islamic beliefs led them to relative superiority and victory over their enemy.
The Battle of Dandanaqan in 1040 which led to the establishment of the Seljuk Empire, the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, which paved the door to Anatolia for the Turks, the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, which was considered the beginning of the New Age, the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I, which ensured that Istanbul remained in our hands today, the War of Independence, which led to the establishment of the Republic of Turkey on top of the Ottoman Empire, always a few times more than a few times the number of victories against the armies.
Battle of Myriokephalon and Harran against Crusaders and Kapetron battles won by Seljuks against Byzantium; Battles of Sırpsındığı, I. Kosovo, Nicopolis, Varna, II. Kosovo and Mohács victories against the Crusader Armies of the Ottoman Empire are the victories won by the spiritual power given by Islamic values even though the numerical superiority could not be achieved.
On the other hand, the Balkan Defeat, which looks like a black mark in our history, has happened to our army, which cannot combine its beliefs with military duties in the hands of police officers who have been involved in politics from head to toe.
- RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS IN TURKISH ARMED FORCES
Our army contributes significantly to the raising of healthy generations by providing intellectual and physical personal development as well as military training with its current professional staff. It is not possible to say that there is a similar contribution to the development of religious generations.
To determine the moral status of our army; It is beneficial to compare the Ottoman period, which was kneaded with Ummah consciousness and Islamic Civilization, and the importance given to religious affairs in the Republic period, which emphasized secular thought and aimed to rise to the level of western civilization.
In measuring the degree of piety of the Turkish Army; The perspective of the army administrative staff on religious values, the relationship between the barracks and the place of worship, and the status of qualified staffs who can provide religious education can be used as a touchstone. In particular, comparing the Ottoman Period and the Republic Period according to these criteria and examining the practices of the modern world armies will be able to reveal the situation clearly.
- RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS DURING OTTOMAN PERIOD
- Religious Sensitivity of Management Staff 
To attribute this expansion of the Turkish-Islamic world, which stretches to India and China at one end and to Australia and Spain at the other, to military superiority and an economic purpose is to understand history wrongly and incompletely. It is certain that the ideal of the "Spreading of Religion" played a primary role in this expansion and these astonishing achievements.
With the wisdom of Osman I, the moral support of his father-in-law, Sheikh Edebali, was imposed in the establishment of the Ottoman Empire.
Orhan is honored with the prayer of Haji Bektash Veli in his time. If a sultan built the material side of the hearth, Haji Bektash Veli also gave spirit to this hearth and instilled dynamism.
In the conquest of Mehmed the Conqueror; his nibs Akshamsaddin had a great share.
Bayezid I and Amir Sultan; Selim I and Molla Guranî and others have always ensured this integrity and maintained this spirit.
- Status of Places of Worship in Barracks 
In the Ottoman Army, the imam of the Janissary Corps was called "Imam-i Hazreti Aga" or "Corps Imam". The most official of the five muezzins of the "Ağa Kapısı Mosque", who was trained in Military and took lessons from the teacher in Orta Mosque, was appointed to this authority. He was considered as the commander of the "Orta" to which he was appointed. He served as imam to the Janissary Agha in five-time salath and participated in the expedition with the Janissary Agha. In the protocol, he was always next to the Janissary Agha.
There were also muezzins and hafizes among the janissaries. All these were taught by the janissary professors at the Military Mosque of the Janissaries. So, they would all have been brought up from Corps.
Fifteen people, including preachers, imam-hatip, second imam, juzhan, chief muezzin, muezzin and servants, were working in Tersane-i Amire Mosque between 1665 and 1693.
- The Status of Qualified Staff Who Can Lecture Religious Education 
There were "Masculines" in the Seljuk army. They gave religious information to soldiers, gave advice and encouraged for wars.
In the Ottoman Army, there was another "Sheikhdom of Army" in addition to the "Imam Agha" of the Janissaries. The Army Sheikhs whose staffs were abolished after the political reforms made in the ottoman state in 1839 were tasked with raising the morale of the soldiers, especially during the war.
The “Orta”, which were used in the battalion in the Janissary organization, also had an imam. The duties of the "Battalion Imams" were to teach the soldiers about religious rules, to lead prayers, to organize and administer religious ceremonies, and to engage in the work of shrouding. Imam did not leave his battalion in battles.
In the Law of Levent Çiftliği, which was prepared to be implemented in the New Order army established by Selim III, it was stipulated that an imam was assigned to each division, soldiers pray with the congregation and read the "Birgivi Epistle" .
After the abolition of the Janissaries by Mahmut II in 1826, in the organization named "Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediyye", which was established in its place, a school was opened for each division and the lessons of the Koran and the Catechism were taught in these places every day. An imam was assigned to each division for the soldiers to perform the five-time salath in congregation. In order for these imams to improve themselves, it was also necessary to read lessons from hafız-ı kutub.
It was also stated in the regulations that officers pay particular attention to the execution of all these services.
There were "Regiment Mufti" in the regiments and "Battalion imams" in battalions.
Regiment Imams carried out religious services and gave moral information. He would lead prayers to the congregation and take care of the funeral procedures. They were military officers in special uniforms and were in charge of all religious affairs of the unit in which they served. In the protocol, the imams of the regiment who came before the captain and after the senior captain were promoted and became "mufti of the regiment". The places of the muftis of regiment in the protocol were below the major and above the senior captain.
"Imams of the Ship" also served on the warships belonging to the naval forces. They were responsible for leading the prayers on the warships, giving religious and moral information to the soldiers, and increasing their spirituality. Like the imams of the regiment, the Imams of the Ship, who were chosen from the ulama, wore robes and turbans, and glazed ribbons on their arms to show their classes.
- RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS IN THE REPUBLIC PERIOD 
- Religious Sensitivity of Management Staff:
During the War of Independence, a national regiment was established under the honorary command of Ankara Mufti Mehmet Rıfat Efendi, and Hacı Atıf Efendi was appointed as the mufti, and Hacı Bayram Veli Mosque orator Hafız Mehmet Efendi was appointed as the imam.
Marshal Fevzi Çakmak, the first Chief of General Staff of the Republican era, asked for help in preparing a "Soldier Catechism" that the soldiers could read and understand with a letter he sent to the Directorate of Religious Affairs on March 26, 1925. Upon this, Ahmet Hamdi Akseki, a member of the Advisory Board of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, wrote a book called “Religion Lessons for the Soldier” and four editions of this work have been published until today.
After the 1960 Revolution, the soldiers and religious symbols who fulfilled their religious duties were excluded by the Turkish Armed Forces senior management; recognized as reactionary symbols, and with the 28 February Process, believers were expelled from the army, veiled women and families were not admitted to barracks, military lodgings, military mess and officers' clubs.
- Status of Places of Worship in Barracks:
Prayer rooms and mosques in the barracks, which have existed since the beginning of the Republic and built by some sensitive barracks and garrison commandants, are still preserved.
The mosques in military barracks, which could be used by sensitive military personnel until February 28, were targeted by regulations to prevent them from being used after the process.
Currently, it is prohibited to perform prayers with more than one person in barracks mosques, to be open outside prayer times and to perform prayers during working hours.
- The Status of Qualified Staff Who Can Lecture Religious Education:
During the period of the first Chief of General Staff of the Republic, Marshal Fevzi Çakmak, the regiment muftis and battalion imams in our army continued to perform their duties.
After Atatürk, the Regiment Mufti and Battalion Imam staffs were abolished. In 1948, the Battalion Imamate was erected by necessity. However, no assignment has been made for employment in this position.
In accordance with the United Nations Security Council's decision to send troops to South Korea, Turkey participated in this formation with a brigade-level unit. A clergyman was assigned as the Regiment Chief Imam in the first convoy set off from Iskenderun on September 25, 1950.
In the first years of the opening of the Faculty of Theology, the employment of students who were educated by the army as religious affairs officers was considered, but since there was no organization and instruction regarding their duties, they were assigned to administrative activities.
The spiritual training of our army is aimed to be carried out by the General Staff personnel department spiritual branch and the moral branches of the land, navy and air forces.
When religious culture and ethics lessons became compulsory in secondary schools, military students were started to be educated at the Faculty of Theology for the military high school and non-commissioned officer schools. Graduated teacher officers worked in military schools as religious culture and ethics teachers.
An active theologian teacher officer served as a "Religious Affairs Officer" at the Cyprus Turkish Peace Forces Command Headquarters because of the expeditionary staff in our units serving in Cyprus.
Today, there is a staff as "Religious Affairs Officer" in the battalion-level units in the expedition staffs of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Under conditions of peace, there are no religious officers in any command post, barracks and troops unit, except 10 religious officers who are graduates of theology who are employed to teach religion and culture lessons in secondary military schools.
- RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS OTHER ARMIES
Today, there are religious establishment and religious affairs officers in the majority of the armies of the world countries, especially the armed forces of the USA and developed European countries.
Especially after the painful and disastrous experiences in the West, when the movement towards religion started systematically and patiently, this effect manifested itself in the institutions of the countries, especially in the army organizations.
Religious institutionalization in the army officially started from the last quarter of the 18th century in the USA and from the 19th century in the developed countries of Europe.
In the armies of Eastern Europe and the Balkan countries, after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, religious structuring started and the rapid institutionalization process continues.
Today, developed countries prefer their religious affairs officers to further strengthen their armies morally and spiritually.
The hierarchical rise of religious affairs officers in the army also varies according to countries. For example; While he did not get a rank in France, they can become a captain in Australia; They can promote up to the Generalcy in countries such as Italy, Belgium, Argentina and Austria. In fact, religious affairs directorates in the USA are Major General and in Brazil at the rank of Lieutenant General.
In the modern armies of the developed countries, a military religious institution has been established for the soldiers of other religious beliefs to match their numbers.
Muslim officers are among the Catholic, Protestant and Jewish religious officers in the Royal Military Forces of England.
There are 21 countries that do not have "Religious Affairs Officers" establishment, whose importance is increasing day by day for the modern world armies. Like China, India, Japan, Tunisia, Algeria and Cuba; Turkey is mentioned among the countries that do not have religious affairs units.
- RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS IN THE USA ARMY 
Religious service in the army started legally with the decision of the Congress of the Continent, which was constituted by 13 colonies, on June 29, 1775.
From September 20, 1776, it was extended to regiments, units and garrisons.
Brigade Religious Affairs Officer was established on April 12, 1808.
When the First World War started, 74 "Religious Affairs Officers" served in the US active-duty army and 72 in the National Guard. The number of those who received religious services during the war increased to 2363.
With a law enacted in 1918, staffing was made so that one Religious Affairs Officer per 1200 personnel.
In 1920, Army Religious Affairs Directorate was established. Religious Affairs Officers were given the right to be promoted up to rank of colonel.
During the Second World War, 8896 Religious Affairs Officers served in the US Army.
In 1944, the rank of Major General of the head of Army Religious Affairs was attached to this head of Religious Affairs Officers of these three forces.
On June 11, 1948, the Religious Affairs Directorate was established separately for each of the three forces and over time, an independent organization for each of them was established.
Religion in the American military has been institutionalized on a legal basis. Considering the organization of the army, its characteristics in the working system and the holiness of the service, it was aimed to train "Religious Affairs Officer". There are still religious affairs officers in the US Army at various ranks, from lieutenant to major general.
Within the Ministry of Defense, there is a "Religious Affairs Directorate" headed by a priest with the rank of major general in order to direct and administer religious affairs and to act as an advisor. In addition, a sub-authority under the name of "Armed Forces Religious Affairs Officers Board" was established within the Ministry, making it easier to conduct activities under a more regular inspection and to cooperate when necessary.
In order to serve as advisors to the Force Commanders in religious and moral problems, there are also "Force Religious Affairs Directorate" under the Ministry of Defense Religious Affairs Directorate, which is responsible for the administration of religious affairs in the Land, Navy and Air Forces.
Each ship of the US Navy has at least one Religious Affairs Officer. A place of worship is also reserved on the ships and is furnished accordingly.
The introduction on the US military website begins with the phrase "Serve your faith while serving your country" and ends with the phrase "The American Army brings God closer to the Military and the Military to God." In Article 3 of the Land Forces Religious Affairs Officer Ordinance (FM 16-5 The Chaplain), “The army is founded on religious principles. The Religious Affairs Officer makes the army a stronghold of religious principles by consolidating this foundation. In this way, its military will be loyal to their country, with good morale.“ It is expressed in this way.
Again, article 109 of the same ordinance states that “It is more necessary to bring God closer to the military and the military to God in battlefield than in the garrison. Nothing can reinforce a combatant, except Allah” is used to clearly emphasize the importance of religion and religious affairs officer in warfare.
- RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS IN THE FRENCH ARMY 
Religious services in the French Armed Forces are carried out by Religious Affairs Officers, called "Retinue Priests". Although the State and Church were separated in 1905 in France, which is considered the cradle of secularism, religious structuring and activity in the Armed Forces has always existed.
There are Religious Affairs Officers in the Army, Corps, Division establishment schemes and service directorates of the French Land Forces Organization.
Religious organization in the French army consists of Catholics, Protestants and Jews.
431 Religious Affairs Officers serve in the French army of 459 thousand personnel. 283 of them are Catholic, 91 Protestant and 45 Jewish. 12 of them are Muslim.
In the French army, a staff was formed so that one Religious Affairs Officer per thousand people. Employment of Religious Affairs Officers is provided according to the state of the religious tendency in the army.
Since the number of Muslims in the French army reached 40 thousand, the number of Muslim Religious Affairs Officers reached 40 in 2010.
- MEASURES TO BE TAKEN IN TURKISH ARMED FORCES
Although the Turkish Armed Forces were the source of their success in the last 50 years of the Republic, they were deprived of religious institutions and religious sensitivity. It also ignored the religious organization that the modern world sensitively included within its own armies.
This wrong attitude has transformed the Turkish Armed Forces from being the Army of the Nation to the army of the State, thus causing it to see the spiritual structure of the nation as a threat before the external enemy.
With this motive, it has created obstacles in its legislation to ensure that religious symbols, values and practices cannot be incorporated.
In order to serve our nation again, there is a need for a radical mentality change in two main issues in our army.
First; It should be ensured that all members of the State, like all institutions of the State, accept being subordinate to the Civil Will, which is elected by the votes of the nation and comes to power.
Second; Anti-religious hierarchical pressures on its members should be lifted, and opportunities should be provided for the free will of religious obligations.
The professional staff of our army must win the heart of our Nation, re-assume the prose of our ancestors in order to become a bastion of peace and justice in the world with its culture of obedience, unwavering discipline and high moral values. It should be the representative of the civilization to which its nation belongs, not to a civilization foreign to its nation and its values.
- The pressure on the members of the Armed Forces, which causes them to stay away from worship, should be lifted, and the opportunity to be among the nation in the mosque and in the congregation should be provided.
- By making the necessary changes in the Dress Code, male members should be able to grow a beard and women should be able to wear hijab.
- At the level of the battalion in the Land Forces, religious officers should be included in the peace cadres, and in other forces equivalent units.
- Small mosques should be activated in barracks, and imams to be appointed by the Directorate of Religious Affairs should be assigned to barracks and warships until religious officials are employed in the Armed Forces. April 02, 2015
Retired Brigadier General
Chairman of Board of Directors of
ASSAM and SADAT Defense and
ASDER Honorary President
 A. Çelenk, Panel Tebliği, Adaleti Savunanlar Derneği Dergisi Sayı 8, Mart 2008, Eki- Asker ve Dini Değerler, p.87
 A. Çelenk, Panel Tebliği, Adaleti Savunanlar Derneği Dergisi Sayı 8, Mart 2008, Eki- Asker ve Dini Değerler, p.88
 A. Çelenk, Panel Tebliği, Adaleti Savunanlar Derneği Dergisi Sayı 8, Mart 2008, Eki- Asker ve Dini Değerler, p.88-89
 Imam Muhammad Birgivi is a Turkish Islamic scholar who lived in the 16th century, was born in the village of Kepsut, Bektaşlar Village of Balıkesir, and descended from Isfendiyar Bey.
 A. Çelenk, Panel Tebliği, Adaleti Savunanlar Derneği Dergisi Sayı 8, Mart 2008, Eki- Asker ve Dini Değerler, p.60-62
 A. Çelenk, Panel Tebliği, Adaleti Savunanlar Derneği Dergisi Sayı 8, Mart 2008, Eki- Asker ve Dini Değerler, p.82
 U.S. Air Force Command Chaplain Ordinance (AFM 165-3)]
 A. Çelenk, Panel Tebliği, Adaleti Savunanlar Derneği Dergisi Sayı 8, Mart 2008, Eki- Asker ve Dini Değerler, p.85